Priority measures 54, 55 and 56 constitute a group of measures intended to eliminate gender disparities in the labour market. Priority measure 54 has a more general thrust, and considers asymmetries relating primarily to access to decent employment, job security, wages and decision-making, while measure 55 focuses more specifically on encouraging businesswomen to exert leadership and to achieve high-level positions in companies, and measure 56 calls for the prevention and punishment of sexual and other forms of harassment in the workplace (and in education).
When it comes to recognizing the productive value of unpaid domestic work and care-giving, referred to in priority measure 54, this aspect is developed more specifically in priority measures 53, 62 and 64 of this same chapter.
This priority measure must recognize the particular situation of women and persons of African descent, and thereby respond to priority measure 93, which refers to the overlapping of inequalities in situations of racism and discrimination.
Possible lines of action
1. Establish the conditions to increase women’s participation in the labour force. 2. Combat the conditions of insecurity and informality that affect the female workforce primarily, and reduce women’s presence in low-productivity sectors. 3. Formulate and implement policies to ensure equal pay for work of equal value. 4. Encourage men to participate in domestic and care work.
Related instruments, forums and mechanisms
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Violence against Women: Article 11 calls upon States parties to take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment, in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, inter alia, “the right to the same employment opportunities, including the application of the same criteria for selection in matters of employment” and “the right to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to equal treatment in respect of work of equal value, as well as equality of treatment in the evaluation of the quality of work.”
Santo Domingo Consensus, agreement 62 (“Develop and implement active labour-market and productive employment policies to ensure decent work for all women, combating the precarious and informal conditions that affect mainly the female workforce and guaranteeing equal pay for work of equal value, an egalitarian participation rate, appointment without discrimination to positions of power and decision-making and the elimination of occupational segregation, with particular attention to rural women, Afro-descendent women, indigenous women, women with disabilities and young women”).
Brasilia Consensus, agreement 1.f (“Develop active labour market and productive employment policies to boost the female labour-market participation rate, the formalization of employment and women’s occupation of positions of power and decision-making, as well as to reduce unemployment rates, especially for Afro-descendent, indigenous and young women who suffer discrimination based on race, sex and sexual orientation, in order to ensure decent work for all women and guarantee equal pay for equal work”).
Quito Consensus, agreement xxii (“Eliminate the income gap between women and men and wage discrimination in all areas of work, and to propose that legislative and institutional mechanisms that give rise to discrimination and precarious working conditions be abrogated”).
Sustainable Development Goals, target 8.5 (“By 2030 achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value”).