Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work, by sex, age and location (SDG indicator 5.4.1)


Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic and care work is calculated by dividing the average number of hours spent on unpaid domestic and care work each day by 24 hours.

Time spent on unpaid domestic and care work refers to the average time women and men spend on household provision of services for own consumption. Domestic and care work includes food preparation, dishwashing, cleaning and upkeep of a dwelling, laundry, ironing, gardening, caring for pets, shopping, installation, servicing and repair of personal and household goods, childcare, and care of the sick, elderly or disabled household members, among others. Time spent on unpaid domestic and care work as well as on community or volunteer work constitutes the overall time spent on “unpaid work”. Community or volunteer work includes volunteer services for organizations, unpaid community work and informal help to other households, among other activities. Activities included in unpaid work are not included within the SNA production boundary but are part of the SNA General Production Boundary. As much as possible, data compiled by UNSD are based on the International Classification of Activities for Time Use Statistics (ICATUS), according to which paid and unpaid work are delineated by the SNA production boundary.

Priority Measures

B.10 - Policies and programs for youth

Promote and invest in labour and employment policies and special training programmes for youth to boost personal and collective capabilities and initiative and to enable them to reconcile studies and work activities, without precarious working conditions and guaranteeing equal opportunities and treatment.

E.53 - Policies and care services

Develop and strengthen policies and universal care services based on the highest human rights standards, from a gender equality and intergenerational perspective, in order to share the delivery of services between the State, the private sector, civil society, families and households and between men and women and facilitate dialogue and coordination between all the parties involved.

E.54 - Labor equality

Promote legislation and design and strengthen public policies on equality in the labour market in order to eliminate gender discrimination and asymmetries in relation to access to decent employment, job security, wages and decision-making on labour issues, as well as to recognize the productive value of unpaid domestic work and care work.

E.61 - Domestic work

Ensure the sharing of responsibility between the State, the private sector, the community, families, women and men for unpaid domestic and care work, incorporating care into social protection systems through allowances, services and benefits that maximize women’s autonomy and guarantee their rights, dignity, well-being and enjoyment of free time.
E. Gender equality